This page shows works in progress - funded by the Seaver Institute and by the NIGMS - by Victoria Foe, George von Dassow, Ed Munro, Mary Howe, Dara Lehman, and Garrett Odell. Some movies show 3-D reconstructions made by computer image processing of hundreds of laser scanning confocal microscope optical sections (spaced 0.2 to 0.5 micrometers apart) of fixed embryos with microtubules and/or filamentous actin and/or chromatin labeled with fluorescent probes, then rendered by ray-tracing. Some movies are time lapse movies of developing embryos. When a clock face appears in the time lapse movies, its hands show the time elapsed since we started filming. They are not yet for public distribution. You need apple's (free) quicktime viewer version 3 or higher to see the movies. Some of the movies are in a large format of 1024x768 pixels for exactly filling the current standard computer data projector's capacity. These will probably not play in your browser window. Instead, save them to disk, then use quicktime to play them, bypassing your browser.
See http://raven.zoology.washington.edu/downTheTubes/ for many 3-D reconstructions intended for public distribution.
go here for web supplement to the Planta paper called Relationships between growth, morphology and wall stress in the stalk of Acetabularia acetabulum, by Michelangelo von Dassow, Garret Odell, and Dina F. Mandoli.
purpUrchAnaphase2.mov shows microtubules (yellow) and F-actin (orange) in a purple sea urchin embryo fixed during metaphase 2. George von Dassow did the experiment.
CelegansAnaphase.mov shows microtubules during anaphase in a c. elegans embryo at its two-cell stage. Ed munro did the experiment.
29aprCYCLHX1.mov shows F-actin (orange), myosin II, (blue), centrosomes (white), and chromatin (green) in a drosophila embryo fixed 35 min after injection with cycloheximide in early interphase 13. F-actin is seen being moved from the cortex into the embryo interior. Vic Foe did the experiment.
new22aprCOLCYHX3.mov shows F-actin (orange), myosin II, (blue), centrosomes (white), and chromatin (green) in a drosophila embryo fixed 30 min after injection with cycloheximide plus colchicine in early interphase 11. Absent microtubules, F-actin remains at the cortex. Vic Foe did the experiment.
big22aprWTmid14.mov is a high (1024x768) resolution reconstruction showing the arrangement of F-actin (orange), myosin II, (blue), centrosomes (white), and chromatin (green) in a drosophila embryo fixed about 60 min after cellularization starts in cycle 14. Vic Foe did the experiment. This large-format movie may not play in your browser.
newCYC14ContrlZ75.mov is a lower resolution of the previous 1024x768 resolution movie.
newmidcyc11.mov shows the arrangement of F-actin (orange), myosin II, (blue), centrosomes (white), and chromatin (green) in a drosophila embryo fixed in mid interphase of cycle 11. Vic Foe did the experiment.
big10ei.mov is a re-rendering at higher 1024x768 resolution of myv10intFull.mov available at http://raven.zoology.washington.edu/downTheTubes Vic Foe did the experiment. This large-format movie may not play in your browser.
larvaceanA.mov is a timelapse movie, at one frame each 3 seconds, of a larvacean embryo from first cleavage until gastrulation at the 32 cell stage. The red clock shows time elapsed since the movie started. This embryo developed at room temperature instead of 13 degrees C, so its development could be abnormal in some respects. 29julyLarvacian1.mov shows a larvacian embryo filmed through a Zeiss 63X, 1.4 NA oil imersion lens, with the entire microscope and camera inside a chamber held at 12 degrees C. We think development arrested because the embryo ran out of oxygen. Dick Whittaker and Victoria Foe prepared these embryos.
Spurp_AT06ana1cell is a 3-D reconstruction of a purple urchin embryo at anaphase preparing for first cleavage. F-actin and microtubules are visible. George von Dassow prepared this specimen.
DeTL6-512.mov is a time-lapse sequence of a sand dollar egg going through first cleavage. George von Dassow made this movie. DeTL3-512.mov is another one of same, and so is DeTL4-512.mov . In all, frames are about six seconds apart. They were collected with the transmitted-light detector on a BioRad Radiance 2000 confocal microscope at room temperature.
Sp1000-16_2cellTelo.mov is a 3-D reconstruction of a purple urchin embryo at telophase initiating second cleavage. F-actin and microtubules are visible. George von Dassow prepared this specimen.
eightCellUrch.mov is an 8-cell urchin embryo in late metaphase / early anaphase. The asters which will inhabit the micromeres are squashed against the vegetal-most cortices of the vegetal quartet of cells. F-actin and microtubules are visible. George von Dassow prepared this specimen.
9july22TelophaseDendraster.mov is a 3-D reconstruction of a dendraster embryo during first telophase. Microtubules only. Bio-Rad Radiance 2000 laser scanning confocal microscope using a 1.4 NA Nikon 60X oil immersion lens. Vic Foe did the experiment.
oyster16degrees.mov is a timelapse movie of an oyster embryo developing (24 July 2001.) Two divisions, each with polar lobe formation, occur (filmed at one frame each six seconds, for 2.30 hours). 28julyOyster.mov is another such movie with a better view of first-cleavage polar lobe formation and collapse. The clock shows real time elapsed since the movie started. This embryo was attached to the slide using poly lysine. oysterSuckedItUp.mov shows an oyster embryo held in place by being squeezed slightly between cover slip and slide. (29 july 2001) This kept it in place, but evidently caused the polar lobe to rupture as it formed. The interest here is the way the embryo pulled back into itself cytoplasm which escaped through two ruptures. The clock shows real time elapsed since the movie started. George von Dassow prepared these embryos. All were filmed through a Zeiss 63X, 1.4 NA oil imersion lens, with the entire microscope and camera inside a chamber held at 16 degrees C.
dendrMTinMetaphase1.mov is a 3-D reconstruction of just microtubules in one-half of a dendraster embryo in first metaphase. It comes from a stack of 180 1024x1024 confocal sections spaced 0.25 microns apart. Bio-Rad Radiance 2000 laser scanning confocal microscope using a 1.4 NA Nikon 60X oil immersion lens. Victoria Foe prepared the specimen. 26 July 2001
phoronid16degrees.mov is a time lapse movie of a phoronid embryo developing at 16 degrees C, filmed through a Zeiss 63X, 1.4 NA oil imersion lens, over 25 hours. The clock face tells the time each frame was taken. George von Dassow prepared the embryo. 24 July 2001
GFPHistone2.mov is a time lapse movie of a syncytial blastoderm stage Drosophila embryo with a GFP-histone gene which renders chromatin fluorescent in live embryos. The movie shows nuclear divisions 10 through 13. Toward the end of the movie, cellularization is proceeding while the nuclei elongate. Victoria Foe made this movie on a Bio-Rad Radiance 2000 laser scanning confocal microscope using a 40X 1.3NA oil objective. The frames are 7 seconds apart and the movie spans 92 minutes. The movie plays at 30 frames per second. 26 July 2001
GFPTubulin3cycles10_12.mov is a time lapse movie of a syncytial blastoderm stage Drosophila embryo with a GFP-tubulin gene which renders microtubules (which concentrate the fluorescent tubulin monomers) fluorescent in live embryos. The movie shows nuclear cycles 10 through 12. Victoria Foe made this movie on a Bio-Rad Radiance 2000 laser scanning confocal microscope using a 40X 1.3NA oil objective. The frames are 7 seconds apart and the movie spans 38 minutes. The movie plays at 24 frames per second. 27 July 2001. GFPtubulin29July.mov is another time lapse movie movie of the same thing, showing nuclear cycles 10 through 11 at higher magnification. Victoria Foe made this movie on a Bio-Rad Radiance 2000 laser scanning confocal microscope using a 60X 1.4NA oil objective. The frames are 7 seconds apart 29 July 2001
fiveNucsActSticks.mov is a computer simulation by g. odell showing how dynamic instability of microtubules (yellow), nucleated by centrosomes (orange), interact with each other (via bipolar kinesins), interact with yolk particles (gray) and interact with actin filaments (red) via hypothesized kinesin motors that transport actin filaments toward microtubule plus ends to cause the nuclear migration and the rearrangement of cortical actin we observe experimentally in cellular morphogenesis of syncytial fruit fly embryos. newmidcyc11.mov shows an example observation. The mathematical model involves a system of differential equations governing each individual microtubule, actin filament, particle, etc. The differential equation system implements the balance of newtonian forces and moments that arise from mechanical interactions between parts that happen to collide, viscous drag, and thermal agitation. A java program integrates the equations numerically. The point is that the life-like dynamics you see emerges automatically from simple mechanical interactions of the myriad parts. It's a two-dimensional model. The green boundary is a deformable plasma membrane bounding the syncytial egg. The turquoise circles are nuclei. The red "mountain ranges" around the outside of the membrane are radial plots of cortical F-actin density.